Formation of Kerala state-Modern history of Kerala-KAS Kerala Administrative Service Exam
Formation of Kerala state
The two independent kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin joined the Union of India after India gained independence in 1947.
On 1 July 1949, the two states were merged to form Travancore-Cochin (Thiru Kochi).
On 1 January 1950, Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state. The Madras Presidency was reorganised to form Madras State in 1947.
On 1 November 1956, the state of Kerala was formed by the States Reorganisation Act merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks, which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara.
In 1957, elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly were held, and a reformist, Communist-led government came to power, under E. M. S. Namboodiripad.
It was the first time a Communist government was democratically elected to power anywhere in the world.
It initiated pioneering land reforms, aiming to lowering of rural poverty in Kerala.
But these reforms were largely non effective to mark a greater change in the society as these changes were not affected to a large extend.
Lakhs of farms were owned by large establishments, companies and estate owners.
They were not affected by this move and this was considered as a treachery as these companies and estates were formed by and during the British rule.
reduction of poverty in Kerala
Two things were the real reason for the reduction of poverty in Kerala one was the policy for wide scale education and second was the overseas migration for labour to Middle east and other countries.
It refused to nationalize the large estates but did provide reforms to protect manual labourers and farm workers, and invited capitalists to set up industry.
Much more controversial was an effort to impose state control on private schools, such as those run by the Christians and the NSS, which enrolled 40% of the students.
The Christians, NSS and Namputhiris and the Congress Party protested, with demonstrations numbering in the tens and hundreds of thousands of people.
The government-controlled the police, which made 150,000 arrests (often the same people arrested time and again), and used 248 lathi charges to beat back the demonstrators, killing twenty.
The opposition called on Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to seize control of the state government.
Nehru was reluctant but when his daughter Indira Gandhi, the national head of the Congress Party, joined in, he finally did so. New elections in 1959 cost the Communists most of their seats and Congress resumed control.
Later in 1967-82 Kerala elected a series of leftist coalition governments; the most stable was led by Achutha Menon from 1969 to 1977.
From 1967 to 1970, Kunnikkal Narayanan led a Naxalite movement in Kerala.
The theoretical difference in the communist party, i.e. CPM is the part of the uprising of the Naxalbari movement in Bengal which leads to the formation of CPI(ML) in India.
Due to ideological differences, the CPI-ML split into several groups. Some come to the democratic way and some to the extreme, anarchic way. The violence alienated public opinion.
The political alliance have strongly stabilized in such a manner that, with rare exceptions, most of the coalition partners stick their loyalty to the alliance.
As a result, to this, ever since 1979, the power has been clearly alternating between these two fronts without any change.
Politics in Kerala is characterized by continually shifting alliances, party mergers and splits, factionalism within the coalitions and within political parties, and numerous splinter groups.
Modern politics in Kerala is dominated by two political fronts: the Communist party-led Left Democratic Front (LDF) and the Indian National Congress-led United Democratic Front (UDF) since the late 1970s.
These two parties have alternated in power since 1982.
Most of the major political parties in Kerala, except for Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), belong to one or the other of these two alliances, often shifting allegiances a number of time.
According to 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election results, the LDF has a majority in the state assembly seats (91/140).
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